The American Marketing Association defines advertising as “Advertising is defined as any paid form of non-personal communication about an organization, product, service, or idea by an identified sponsor.”
An advertising agency is an independent organization that provides one or more specialized advertising and promotion related services to assist companies in developing, preparing and executing their advertising and other promotional programs.
Advertising exposure model
This represents another model of the advertising and persuasion process wherein the various processes that can occur after consumers are exposed to an advertisement.
- First, exposure to the advertisement can create awareness about the brand, leading to a feeling of familiarity with it.
- Second, information about the brands benefits and the attributes on which the benefits are based can register with the consumer can also result from exposure to the ad.
- Third, advertisements can also generate feelings in an audience that they begin to associate with the brand or its consumption.
- Fourth, through the choice of the spokesperson and various executional devices, the advertisement can lead to the creation of an image for the brand, often called “brand personality”
- Fifth, the advertisement can create the impression that the consumer’s peers or experts- individuals favour the brand and groups the consumer likes to emulate.
This is often how products and brands are presented as being fashionable. These five effects can create a favorable liking, or attitude towards the brand, which in turn should lead to the purchasing action. Sometimes the advertiser will attempt to spur purchasing action directly by providing a reminder or by attacking reasons why the consumer may be postponing that action.
The above model helps us to understand how and why consumers acquire process and use advertising information. It’s also important at the planning stage to develop a good understanding of where advertising fits into the total pool of information and influence sources to which a consumer is exposed. Understanding information processing invariably leads to the need for understanding a wide range of other important psychological constructs, such as perception, learning, attitude formation and chance, source effects, brand personality and image, cognitive and affective response and social factors such as group influence.