AIDA model was presented by Elmo Lewis to explain how personal selling works. It shows a set of stair-step stages which describe the process leading a potential customer to purchase.
The stages, Attention, Interest, Desire, and Action, form a linear hierarchy.
· It demonstrates that consumers must be aware of a product’s existence,
· Be interested enough to pay attention to the product’s features/benefits, and
· Have a desire to benefit from the product’s offerings.
· Action, the fourth stage, would come as a natural result of movement through the first three stages. Although this idea was rudimentary, it led to the later emerging field of consumer behavior research.
Reliance India Mobile campaign can be used to explain this model better.
Awareness- the elaborate advertisement where Mukesh Ambani spoke about the new project being introduced on his father’s 70th birthday.
Interest- was generated as the company spokesperson featured in the ad, as a representative of the company image and also spoke about introducing a new technology – CDMA.
Desire- was created with various offers like free SMS, 40paise STD calls, easy payment schemes, and discount coupons worth Rs. 1 lakh.
Action- Dhirubhai Ambani Pioneer offers induced people to go for the product.
Also the model can be applied to marketing movies:
Where in the initial stage awareness may be created with attention by airing the promos on television. Attention is created with the help of key features like starcaste, music, locations, etc.
Interest is then created with the release of the music and by introducing the theme and sales of audiocassettes and CDs indicate the same.
Desire is created with hoardings of the movie and also with the help of several contests and free prizes and attractions like stars visiting the music shops.
In the last stage people are moved to action in the form of buying tickets as a result of the ratings given to the movies in the dailies, etc
To illustrate one such movie through the AIDA model is
BEND IT LIKE BECKHAM
A - Promos had David Beckham and Football
I – Introduced Music and Dialogues of film. Also the tag-line: “Who wants to cook Aloo Gobi when you can bend a ball like Beckham.”
D - A fresh movie with a different theme. The film also talked about the success of film overseas
A – Got 3– and 4–star ratings and publicized that in promos.
Hierarchy of effects model has been criticized on some points, such as that people do not exactly follow these sequences
People in all the cases may not strictly follow a series of stages as are explained in the hierarchy of effects model. They may in certain situations, directly jump to a particular stage, not following the stages in a logical pattern.
For e.g. a child accompanying mother to a grocery store is likely to demand a product without indulging in stages like becoming aware about it, being interested by it and then buying it. He may just be lured by the display