Advertising frameworks

Hall (1992) and O’ Malley (1991) have suggested that there are four main advertising frameworks.

The sales framework

This framework is based on the premise that the level of sales is the only factor that is worth considering when  measuring the effectiveness of an advertising campaign.

This view holds that all advertising activities are aimed ultimately at shifting product – generating sales. Advertising is considered to have a short term direct impact on sales. This effect is measurable and, while other outcomes might also result from advertising, the only important factor is sales. On sales alone will the true effect of any advertising be felt.

Types of Sales Oriented Objectives

Type of Sale Increase

Media Policy

Creative Content



Existing Products

Existing Product to Existing users

Maintain insertions in current media

Suggest new uses for your product, or reasons for more frequent use, building on existing contacts and goodwill

DETTOL Antiseptic advertised on the different usage of the product, like for washing baby’s clothes, for shaving, etc.

Existing Product to New users

Consider new media

Explain the basic benefits of your product, and your company record, to people unaware of them.

PHILIPS, ONIDA launched their colour television sets in rural markets and had related advertisements for it.

Existing Product to users of rival products – Brand switching

Consider competitors media patterns

Comparison campaigns pointing out the advantages of the product over rival brands and of changing established buying habits

FAIREVER advertised to switch the Fair & Lovely users to its product.

New Products

New Products to Existing Customers

Maintain insertions in current media

Explain basic benefits, building on existing contacts and goodwill

LAKME introducing new products like Sunscreen lotion, Moisturizer with Peach Flavour, Winter Cream Lotion with Strawberry ingredients, etc.

New Products to New Users

Consider new media

Explain the basic benefits of your product, and your company record in other fields

FA and NIVEA introducing products for men.

New Products to Competitors Customers

Consider competitors media patterns

Explain basic benefits and overcome established goodwill.

PEPSI AHA aimed at advertising its
elf in bars in order to switch the alcohol drinkers to use Pepsi Aha instead of Thumbs Up as their mixer in the drink.

The persuasion framework.

The second framework assumes advertising to work because it is capable to work as it is capable of persuasion. Persuasion is effected by gradually moving buyers through a number of sequential steps. This hierarchy of effects model assume that buyer decision making is rational and can be accurately predicted. These models have a number of drawbacks and are no longer used as the basis for designing advertisements, despite great popularity in the 1960s and 1970s.

The involvement framework

Involvement based advertisements work by drawing members of the target audience into the advertisements. Involvement with the product develops as a consequence of involvement with the advertisement.

The salience framework.

Salience models are based upon the premise that advertising works by standing out, by being radically different from all other advertisements in the product class. Orange cellular service always differentiated itself with a bright presentation and a striking bright orange in its logo and very catchy picture message used to convey several things. For E.G: the picture of the animal ears standing upright to mean all income free.

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